On this page we are collected our research on ITS systems for locating problems in urban areas
ComuniSulWeb – A system for land management
The small society we live in today is part of a whole increasingly globalized world, where information travels from one part of the world with ease and simplicity. The technology in recent years has made great strides, more and more people, even young people do not, for example, choose to have a smartphone instead of a common cell.
These new devices allow you to get your hands on the small computers at relatively low prices compared to previous years. The use of smartphones is no longer now to make and receive phone calls or send text messages, but to connect to the Internet and take advantage of this sensor to provide even more services.
Here then is that even a simple phone can be transformed into a computer, a video camera, a navigation system, etc., Becoming a “personal device” in all respects.
A new its method to improve buildings safety
The safety of a building can be explicated in two different ways: the ability to withstand a critical event that affects the structure and the ability to safely allow people to leave the building. The purpose of this article is to present a new methodology that can allow engineers to detect people trajectories in evacuation drills and provide a measure of effectiveness for buildings evacuation plans. Bluetooth receivers positioned at the side of roads have been used to measure road traffic flow conditions at given points of the road by sensing the driver’s smartphones (only those with Bluetooth system turned on). In the proposed system, instead, Bluetooth beacon passive emitters are positioned as reference points and the sensing device is made up by the common smartphones of people evacuating a building The proposed methodology is thus based on using common Bluetooth beacons that are capable of emitting a radio signal. The radio signal can be picked up by the sensors present in common smartphones. The signal is then processed by a dedicated application on the device. Information is transferred to a computer and elaborated obtaining a measure of people positions. In the proposed system people movements in emergency evacuation drills can practically be traced with very simple and affordable equipment. In details training emergency simulations can be performed and evaluated after this procedure is applied: • An application is preliminarily loaded and started on people mobile phones. • Passive Bluetooth beacons devices are suitably placed along the escape routes and inside buildings, at critical points. Once all data from mobile phones are gathered the system is able to reconstruct the trajectories of smartphones, in indoor (or outdoor) environments, and therefore to assess the overall performance of the building evacuation plan. On the basis of obtained data it is possible to create a security index for assessing building emergency evacuation plans. With the proposed system it is possible to take into consideration specific abilities (or lack of) relative to the actual occupants of the building and also find out if someone, by mistake, does not follow the established evacuation path. The research was conducted carrying on an experimental survey for the evaluation of the errors produced by the instrumentation and also the experimental execution of a test evacuation from an office building.
Localization issues in the use of ITS
The problem to rectify and optimize distance measures from satellites in GNSS devices has been thoroughly explored in many researches. Instead there is not much information on available procedures to replicate the observed errors. The replication of GNSS errors can, in fact, be useful in many traffic simulation scenarios to test for ITS performances. The purpose of this article is to present cases where such a methodology can be useful and then introduce a methodology for the explicit simulation of errors in GNSS systems. The proposed methodology is based on the experimental analysis of some statistical distributions. Such distributions, arising from multiple observations in the field, are able to reproduce the behavior of the error in time as a function of the factors that influence it. The analyzed data were extracted by the GPS/GLONASS sensors of common smartphones and compared with a high-precision GPS equipment. These data were evaluated in different signal coverage conditions, in an open field where the signal quality is expected to be better, suburban and urban areas, where the signal is expected to be worse. The analysis considers many aspects such as the signal reflection problems and the sudden loss of the signal because of a change of the received satellite constellation. The research was conducted by following various steps: a field survey through smartphones and high-precision instrumentation in different conditions, the creation of reference distributions for each parameter that can have an influence on the error, the analysis of correlation functions between the variables, and a final implementation of the proposed algorithm coupled with microsimulation. The paper intends to shed some light on this problem allowing scientist and developers of new ITS system methodologies to reproduce in a simulated environment not only the movement of single vehicles (as usually carried on with microsimulation) but also the data that could be obtained from on-vechicle GNSS instrumentation. The reproduction of this GNSS tracks can be useful to assess the overall response of some new ITS systems before implementing them in the field. The proposed simulation methodology could become a standard tool to help in making better decisions in ITS implementation and to develop better ITS systems.